EIN SHEMER (Heb. עֵין שֶׁמֶר), kibbutz in central Israel, near the entrance to the Iron Valley. Affiliated with Kibbutz Arẓi ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir, the site served as a camp for the ha-shomer association before World War I. After 1918 a laborers' camp was opened there, which was taken over by a group of Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir members in 1924. The permanent settlement was established in 1927. The kibbutz has intensive farming, with field crops, avocado plantations, poultry, and dairy cattle, and maintained several manufacturing enterprises (food, plastics, and rubber). The kibbutz operates the Old Courtyard on its premises, a theme museum showing life in the traditional kibbutz. In 1968 Ein Shemer had 545 inhabitants, increasing to 605 in the mid-1990s and 758 in 2002. The name refers to Ha-Shomer and to Ha-Shomer ha-Ẓa'ir as well as to the nearby Samaria (Shomron) Hill. -WEBSITE: www.courtyard.co.il . (Efraim Orni / Shaked Gilboa (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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